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Модальді етістіктер және олардың баламалары. Модальді сөздер және тіркестер



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Қабылдау, сезіну және ойлау іс — әрекетін білдіретін кейбір етістіктер Аударма кезіндегі лексикалық трансформациялар.Халықаралық сөздер Сабақтас құрмалас сөйлемдер Герундий мен герундиялық айналымдардың ауларылу жолдары

өте кең таралған ұғым. Ол сөйлеушінің нағыз іс-әрекетіне деген қатынасын білдіреді. Модальділік модальді етістіктер мен олардың баламалары мен модальді мағыналарын білдіреді, яғни олар мұқтаждық, мақсаттық, мүмкіндік және басқалары болуы мүмкін. Сондықтан олар әртүрлі қажетті жағдайларда қолданулары мүмкін. Бұл жерде біз тек ғана can, may, must, shall, should сияқты модальді етістіктерді қарастырамыз. Олардың баламалары, яғни  to have + infinitive және to be + infinitive етістіктерімен жасалатын тіркестер де орасан маңызға ие. Бұл тіркестер міндетті түрде мәжбүрлікті білдіреді. To be етістігімен жасалатын тіркестердің бұйрық күші немесе келісімге келе отырып жасалынатынын, яғни талқыланып қойылған мұқтаждықты білдіретінін ұмытпаған жөн. Әсіресе шартты сөйлемдерде to be + infinitive тіркесіне көңіл аудару керек, өйткені ол тілекті білдіреді. Басты сөйлемі қандай да бір эмоцияны яғни таң қалу, ашу, күнделікті білдіретін кезде should модальді етістігінің бағыныңқы сөйлемде қолданылуын есте сақтау керек. Сондықтан likely, sure, certain модальді сөздері бар тіркестерде беріледі. Кездейсоқтық, мұқтаждықты білдіретін модальді мағынасы бар етістіктер көп кездеседі. Бұл жерде to be bound + infinitive етістігінің тіркесі, to come + infinitive, to happen + infinitive етістігінің тіркестері және to seem + infinitive, to appear + infinitive, to prove + infinitive етістіктерімен болатын айналымдар да кездеседі.

Практикалық тапсырма

Берілген сөйлемдерді модальді етістіктер, сөздер, тіркестер және баламаларды қолдану ережелеріне назар аудара отырып, ана тіліне аударыңыздар:

1. It may interest you to know that we had the pleasure of selling the Daily Worker in theBirmingham»Bull King» every Sunday night for over 10 years. (D. W.,   1965)

2. It appears that the total activity in the economy ofBritainmay not have increased very much, if at all. (D. W., 1965)

3. The Disarmament Commission at the United Nations is unlikely to delve deeply into the labyrinthine problems of arms control, but it might at least re-establish the political will to disarm. (The Times, 1965)

4.Maineseemed to stretch endlessly. I felt as Peary must have when he approached what he thought was the North Pole. (J. Steinbeck, Travels with Charley)

5.  These negotiations of government’s employees must have gone on for a long while. (D. W., 1965)

6. There are bad roads; there is poor lighting, and conges­tion. These must not be made excuses for dangerous driving, but reasons for extra care, and motorists must be obliged to drive in a manner making full allowance for these and other hazards. (D. W., 1965)

7. Plants and flowers move their leaves in a daily rhythm, which will persist even when they are transplanted into deep caves of unchanging darkness and temperature (The N. Y. T. M., 1966)

8. At night some fish lie on their sides at the bottom of their aquarium. Some float on the surface of the sea .Others will «sleep» in shallow waters in the sand. (Ibid.)

9. Is it too much in this age to demand that the aged and infirm shall be allowed to travel at reduced fares inLondon? (D. W., 1965)

10. All the resources of the local authorities and the Govern­ment will be made available so that never again shall a disaster like Aberfan occur, a disaster caused by care­less treatment of Welsh mines spoil heaps. (D. W., 1966)

11. An editorial in the Oxford Magazine says: «We regard it as fantastic that members of the boat club crew should be able to devote so much time to rowing in term time. (D. W., 1964)

12. It was natural that on coming toLondon, Shakespeare, fired with theatrical ambition, should seek to join a rep­utable company of players. (Theatre World, 1964)

13.  A representative of the National Union of Teachers said;

«It is intolerable that parents whose children have been justly smacked should go to the school and assault the teachers.» (D. W., 1964)

14. Why shouldn’t children be allowed to plan their own television programmes? (D. W., 1964)

15. The new Budget introduced in the Commons changes nothing. The economy is to continue to stagnate. To describe it, however, as a neutral Budget, is to miss its entire purpose.

There is no relief for wage and lower salary earners. On the contrary, for them, the squeeze is to go on. (M. S , 1967)

16. Aluxury hotel for dogs is to be opened atLima,Peru, a city of 30,000 dogs. The furry guests will have separate hygienic kennels, top medical care and high standard cuisine, including the best bones. Also on hand at the «dogotel» — trees. (D. W., 1964)

17. The Epsom Downs are deteriorating as a beauty spot and new legislation is needed if they are to be preserved, the Epsom Downs Joint Committee said yesterday. (M. S.; 1967)

18. If the Labour Party is to draw tne right lessons from the General Election defeat, it will have to go deep into the irreconcilable conflict between the interests of the wor­kers and the employers. (M. S., 1970)

19. The manuscript, which is of the first nine books of Cax-ton’s translation of Ovid’s «Metamorphoses» and dated 1480, is now at theBritishMuseum. An American col­lector wanted to buy it but the Government refused an export licence until December 6 and said 90,000 must be raised by that date if the manuscript was to stay inBritain. (M. S., 1967)

20. If the crisis in the British coal industry is to be overcome, emergency steps must be taken to expand the production of coking coal with a Government assisted crash pro­gramme for the development of smokeless fuel and a guarantee given of no pit closures except through exhaus­tion. (M. S., 1970)

21. And though I was deeply grateful for the attention and honour 1 was given, it was sometimes almost enough to make me desperate. I had always loved to walk in the streets of Darjeling, but now I found that I had to go out before dawn in the morning if I was not to be fol­lowed by a whole procession. (Tenzing, Tiger of the Snows)

22. Charges thoseU. S.advisers have taught torture methods in some Latin American countries are to be investigated by a sub-committee of the House of Representatives. (M. S., 1970)

23. Britain’s thirst for water will double by the end of the century. The use of sea water might provide the solution. The Government was already experimenting with de­salination. We have to construct over the next 30 years water conservation projects with a total yield equiva­lent to all those constructed over the last century. (M. S., 1971)

24. Brian Morris, 14-year-old schoolboy, yesterday had to abandon his second attempt to be the youngest swimmer to conquer theEnglish Channel, when he was only four miles from his goal. (M. S., 1968)

25. The Prime Minister is having to be tough because he has left himself no alternative. He has had to be far tougher than if he had had the political courage to admit earlier that, having ruled out the devaluation, he had made inevitable a serious degree of deflation — and of unem­ployment. (The Observer, 1966)

26. When the House of Commons debated foreign affairs in December the main theme was nuclear defence. When it returns to the subject on Thursday the theme is likely to beVietnam. (The Times, 1965)

27. Weather Likely to Be Unsettled

The Meteorological Office yesterday forecast un­settled weather forBritainduring the next month. There is unlikely to be more than average sunshine and tem­peratures are expected to range from below average overScotlandto above average for Southern England andSouth Wales. (M. S., 1970)

28. The main disadvantage of the Bill on the presidential succession is that it involves the cumbersome business of changing the Constitution and is therefore unlikely to become law until next year. (The Times, 1964)

29. Knowledge that in the fields where research and develop­ment costs bulk large, small national industries in Europe are bound to remain uncompetitive, has already led France to seek cooperation with Britain in computers and aircraft. (The Guardian, 1966)

30. This is bound to get me a bad name as a sportsman, but let me say at once that I have nothing against the kill­ing of animals. (J. Steinbeck, Travels with Charley)

31. This type of motor appears to be the best adapted to winter conditions. (M. S., 1969)

32. The ancient   belief that the human heart is the seat of emotional life may seem to be endangered by the latest surgical advances. (The Times, 1968)

33. Cabinet divisions seem to exist on the question of how much the worker and employer should each pay for a dearer National Insurance stamp. (M. S., 1969)

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